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A Guide to Citations & References

When writing a research paper you are discussing ideas developed and published by other people in books and articles and you need to give them credit. Using other peoples' ideas without acknowledge them is plagiarism. You need to give credit when paraphrasing and when using direct quotes.

Direct Quotes

Use this style when you are citing something word for word.

According to Hirth (1996:209), "production strategies are concerned with the control of surpluses generated in both food production and craft activity. Service models stress payments to elite individuals for the specific functions they provide for society. Distribution strategies focus on the direct and indirect control of resources moving through both mobilization and exchange networks."

Authors name (year of publication: page number)


Use this style when you are summarizing an idea.

As Moore (1985) pointed out, because the state is concerned with diverting resources from the household, we should be able to identify the hand of the state at the household level.


Authors name (year of publication)

If there are two authors list both: Mackey and Klymyshyn (1998), (Mackey and Klymyshyn 1998)

If there are three authors: Smith et al. (2002), (Smith et al. 2002)

References Cited

Every research paper must include a section that indicates the references you used in the paper. The listing should include the authors first and last name, title and year of publication, publisher, and place of publication.

Different types of publications require different styles.

Books with a single author:

  • Smith, Stuart Tyson
    2003 Wretched Kush: Ethnic Identities and Boundaries in Egypt's Nubian Empire. Routledge, London.
  • Earle, Timothy
    1997 How Chiefs Come to Power: The Political Economy in Prehistory. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto.
Books with more than one author:
  • Donnan, Christopher and Donna McClelland
    1999 Moche Fineline Painting: Its Evolution and Its Artists. UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, Los Angeles.
Article in a journal:
  • D'Altroy, Timothy and Timothy Earle
    1985 Staple Finance, Wealth Finance and Storage in the Inka Political Economy.
    Current Anthropology, 26: 187-206.
  • Wilk, Richard R., and William J. Rathje
    1982 Household Archaeology. American Behavioral Scientist 25(6):617-639.
Chapter in an edited book:
  • Ashmore, Wendy and Richard R. Wilk
    1988 Household and Community in the Mesoamerican Past. In Household and Community in the Mesoamerican Past, edited by Richard R. Wilk and Wendy Ashmore, pp.1-27. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
  • Flannery, Kent and Marcus Winter
    1976 Analysing Household Activities. In The Early Mesoamerican Village, edited by Kent Flannery, pp. 34-44. Academic Press, New York.
Internet Publication or Resource
  • Burka, L. P. (1993). A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions. MUD history. lpb/muddex/essay (2 Aug. 1996).
  • Warren, C. (1996). Working to ensure a secure and comprehensive peace in the
    Middle East (U.S. Dept. of State Dispatch 7:14). FastDoc. OCLC (File #9606273898). (12 Aug. 1996).

Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation or Masters thesis:

  • Gumerman IV, George J.
    1991 Subsistence and Comple Societies: Diet between Diverse Socio-Economic Groups at Pacatnamu, Peru. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles.
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