The Neolithic Period

Thousands of years ago, seasonal lakes and savanna made central Sudan a rich environment supporting a large population ranging across what is now barren desert, like the Wadi el-Qa'ab.

By the middle of the 5th millennium BC, Nubia's Neolithic peoples were full participants in the "agricultural revolution," living a settled lifestyle with domesticated plants and animals.

Rock art of cattle like that found during our expedition suggests the presence of a cattle cult like those found in the Sudan and other parts of Africa today.

Pottery of the Neolithic was made from sandy clay and decorated with distinctive rocker-stamped designs.

Other finds include groundstone, which was used for making flour, Ostrich eggshell, reflecting a tasty meal or perhaps the raw material for bead making, and flint tools.


Before the discovery of metalworking, stone was the only material available for making knives, projectile points, and scythe blades for harvesting crops.

The tip of a fine bifacially flaked spear point or arrowhead came from el-Kab.